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ROBOTICS

by basicact

Now a days, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals the scope of Artificial Intelligence is increasing. Artificial intelligence is demonstrated by machines or any device that perceives its environment and also performs various actions that can possibly maximize the chance of successfully achieving its goals.

Unlike the basic functions performed by human mind, artificial intelligence describes the machines, robots or computers that mimic cognitive functions which are associated with human mind and problem solving. Machines are becoming increasingly capable to perform almost every kind of task that requires learning or problem solving.

Modern machine capabilities require successfully understanding human speech, game systems, autonomously operating cars and so much more. The subfields which are based on technical considerations deal with Robotics or machine learning.

Robotics

Robotics is a domain in Artificial Intelligence which deals with the study of efficiently creating intelligent robots. They are the artificial agents which act in real world environment. And it seems like they are ruling the environment effectively.

It is basically a branch of Artificial Intelligence and is composed of electrical engineering, computer science and for mechanical engineering also.

Objectives of Robots

  • Robotics, the design, construction and use of machines just like robots to perform the tasks which are traditionally performed by human beings.
  • They are widely used in industries to manufacture or perform simple tasks.
  • It is used in places where work must be hazardous to humans which is performed in the environment.
  • Robots are aimed at manipulating the objects by moving, picking, or modifying the physical properties of different objects
  • Moreover, it frees the manpower from performing repetitive function without getting distracted and exhausted.

Main aspects of Robotics

  • They usually contain some level of computer programming that has a function of determining that what, when and how a robot does something.
  • They have electrical components which have the ability to control and power the entire machine.
  • Mechanical construction is also an important aspect of robotics. It deals with the form, shape which is properly designed to perform a particular task.

What is the difference between Robotics and another AI program?

The main differences are discussed here as follows:

AIProgramRobotics
The input is in the form of different symbols and rules.  Here the input is in the form of speech waves form or different analogs signals.
They require general purpose to operate on the computers.  A special hardware with some kinds of detector and sensor is required.
They operate in a computer stimulated world.  Robotics operates and deals in real world.

Robot Locomotion

The mechanism which makes the robot capable of moving around the environment is known as the robot locomotion. It has very types:

  • Wheeled
  • Legged
  • Combination of wheeled and legged
  • Tracked slip or skid

Wheeled Locomotion

Wheeled locomotion is power efficient as compared to legged locomotion. It basically requires less count of motors to perform a movement. There is less stability issues in case of a greater number of wheels.

  • It has a standard wheel which rotates around the wheel axle and also around the contact.
  • A castor wheel which rotates around the wheel axle and the offset steering joint.
  • Swedish 45 and Swedish 90-degree wheels- Omni wheel, it rotates around the contact point and around the wheel axle and rollers.
  • The ballorsphericalwheel– Omnidirectional wheel Is technically difficult to implement.

Legged Locomotion

Legged locomotion requires a greater number of motors than the wheeled locomotion to accomplish a movement. It is suitable for rough and smooth terrain. It consumes more power while jumping, hopping, climbing up or down.

  • It comes with a variety of one, two, four, six legs. Leg coordination is necessary for locomotion if a robot as multiple legs.
  • The total number of possible gaits depends upon the number of legs a robot has.
  • If a robot has k legs, then the number of possible events N= (2k-1).
  • It has six different events such as lifting and releasing the left leg, lifting, and releasing the right leg, and lifting and releasing both legs together.

Slip/ Skid Locomotion

It is a type in which the vehicles use tracks such as in a tank.  With the help of moving the tracks with different speeds the robot is steered in the same or in opposite direction. It has large area of contact of track and ground that is why it offers great amount of stability.

Components- A robot is made of

Robots are constructed with different kinds of components which are mentioned below:

  • Power supply, batteries, hydraulics, or solar power.
  • Actuators to convert energy into movement
  • AC/DC motors for rotational movement.
  • Muscle wires when electric current is passed.
  • Sensors to provide real time information on task environment such as tactile sensors etc.

Applications of Robotics

There are a number of domains in which the robots have been quite helpful till date ad is observed to be more instrumental in the future. Some of them are discussed as follows:

  • Industries:

                   The robots are used in different industries for material handling, cutting, welding, drilling, and polishing.

  • Military:

                  Different kinds of autonomous robots can reach the hazardous and inaccessible zones such as war situation. Daksh is a name of a robot which has a main function to destroy the life-threatening objects safely.

  • Entertainment:

Different sorts of robots have been made by the engineers prominently, Disney engineers for movie making. It can help out on the sets with various kinds of machineries.

  • Medicine:

                      These days, the robots are also capable of performing different clinical tests, performing the complex surgeries and also rehabilitation of the permanently disabled people.

  • Exploration:

                                   Underwater drones are of great importance these days for ocean exploration, robot rock climbers are also used for space exploration. In this way so many situations and places are being discovered and then analyzed with the help of robots. In this way Robotic interventions are well accepted as a smarter tool in healthcare and other fields. The robotic precision and performance have been widely utilized in various departments and have a ton of benefits.

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